Nuclear Power: A 2-page tour

1. How Chernobyl showed Soviet Hubris

• The Experiment at 1. A.M.
• Two Explosions
◦ Timeline of Chernobyl Events
• The Aftermath and the Official Response
• Chernobyl Casualty Figures
• Since this Happened in the Soviet Union…

2. How Fukushima Proved the Safety of Nuclear Power

• Earthquake, Tsunami and the Events at Dai-ichi
◦ Timeline of Fukushima Dai-ichi
◦ The Modern 47 Ronin : The Selfless Fukushima 50
• Aftermath of the Meltdowns
• Responses
◦ Helen Caldicott: Australian MD
• Since this happened in Japan…

3. How bad can it be? The most serious nuclear accidents

• Types of accidents
• Three Mile Island: War of the Worlds 2
◦ Timeline of Three Mile Island
◦ Outsiders looking in: Media, government and the NRC
• Ernest J. Sternglass – professor of radiological physics
◦ Aftermath of Three Mile Island
◦ Natural Nuclear reactor: Oklo, Gabon
• SL1- Meltdown: The story of Byrnes and Legg
◦ Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls: Nuclear Research Pioneer
• Tōkai; Mihama NPP: fatal disasters in Japan’s nuclear industry

4. The invisible killer: radiation dangers

• Radiation Measurement and Banana Equivalent Dose
• Types of radiation: Energetic Particles:
◦ Radiation Shielding
• ‘No safe dosage’ and definition of contamination
• Competing theories of radiation
◦ Arguments for a linear model
◦ The Taiwan Case: Radioactive apartments
◦ Hermann Muller: Radiation scientist and Noble Prize winner
• Broader implications of the LNT being false

5. Hot stuff: Nuclear fuel

• Peak Oil and Peak Uranium
• Uranium Enrichment
• Spent Fuel : Nuclear Waste or Nuclear Resource?
◦ Reprocessing: Recycling Nuclear Fuel
• Breeder Reactors: limitless nuclear fuel
• Uranium Mining: Not renewable, but sustainable
◦ Australia: Supplier not consumer
• Long term Repositories
◦ Polar experiences: Yucca Mt. & Onkalo, Finland
• Alternate Nuclear Fuels: Nuclear Fusion and Thorium Reactors
◦ Oak Ridge National Laboratory
◦ Fusion : the holy grail of nuclear power

6. Out of sight, out of mind: Depiction of nuclear power

• The end of the world and nuclear destruction
• The Springfield Nuclear Power Plant
• Radiation can do anything: Radiation as magic
• Incognito: Nuclear power under an alias
◦ Going where no particle has gone before: Radiation in Star Trek
• Big Bad: The nuclear industry

7. Blurred lines: Nuclear Power & Nuclear Weapons

• The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
◦ Effectiveness of the NPT
◦ Beyond the NPT
• Nuclear Hedging
◦ Fruits of disarmament: Megatons to Megawatts
• Why so few nuclear states?
• Iraq
• Suspicious program and sanctions: Iran

8. The Effects of the Fear

• Chernobyl Panic
◦ Chernobyl now: Inside the Exclusion Zone
• Fukushima Anxiety
◦ Janette Sherman: M.D. And Toxicologist
• Evacuation: The Most drastic step
• What damage to evacuees
• Media trading on fear
◦ A short summary Costs of fear
• History of fear
• Alchemy and the End of the World
• Neglect of Nuclear Power

9. The Pro-Nuclear vs Anti-nuclear Debate

• Seeking controversy:How does the media portray nuclear power
◦ Linus Pauling – Vitamin enthusiast and anti-nuclear activist
• NIMBYs go BANANAs
• The power of the NGOs: Greenpeace, friends of the Earth & others
◦ Patrick Moore: disputed founder of Greenpeace
• Mortal enemies: Coal versus Nuclear
• George Monbiot of the Guardian
• Boundaries of the debate
• Public attitudes to nuclear power

10.Generations: Evolution of nuclear technology

• Birth of Nuclear Power : Generation I & The NPPS of the World Generation II PWR BWR VVER RBMK CANDU Magnox
◦ Nazi Germany’s quest for a nuclear bomb: Heavy water in history
• New export models: APR-1400 & OPR-1000 CPR-1000
• Cutting edge of nuclear power: Gen III (1992 ~ 2030)
ABWR AP-1000 EPR ACR VVER-1200 AP1400
• Behind the horizon : Gen IV reactors (2030 – )
GFR LFR MSR SFR SCWR VHTR
• Nuclear Renaissance

11. A Variety of ways to Generate Power

• Intermittent: the side salad of power, but you still need an entrée
• You can’t change the wind, but you can adjust your sails: Wind
• Inefficient, dangerous, expensive: Solar
• Banqiao’s Ghost, methane, disruption: Hydropower
• Choking on our fumes: Fossil Fuels
• Energy of the Stone Age: Wood and Biomass
• Ideal energy source

12. National Development around the world

• The European emotional spectrum: anxiety to trust
◦ Germany’s Energiewende: Paved with Good Intentions
◦ Italy’s 50 billion Euro mistake: A panicky decision after Chernobyl
◦ The global leader in nuclear power: France
◦ The British tradition of muddling through Erratic Policy
◦ Energy Pressure from the East: Ukraine
• 125 reactors across the Americas
◦ Argentina, Brazil and Mexico
• The future of nuclear power: Asia
◦ China: Firing on all pistons
◦ Japan and the special relationship
◦ Fire and Lightning: the Korean Peninsula
◦ Energy shortages: India and Pakistan
• Nuclear power in Africa & the Middle East

13. Safety doesn’t happen by accident

• Defense-in-depth
• 1975 Rasmussen report
◦ Designed for Airplane Crashes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis and other natural disasters
• Terrorism: Safer to ignore it
◦ Tempest in a teapot: Dirty Bombs
• Fear of foreign dependence

14. The bottom line: Nuclear Power Economics

• Lifetime & Decommissioning
◦ Chernobyl Decommissioning
◦ Lewis Strauss – believer in God, capitalism and nuclear power
• Operating Load
• Capital costs
• The cost of changing your mind
• The last NPP in Ontario: Darlington Nuclear Generating Station
• A lot of money for no nuclear power The Philippines, Austria and Taiwan
• National differentiation and National Champions

15. Beyond Power: nuclear technology on earth and in space

• Waste Heat: Using all the energy
◦ Solving the water crisis of tomorrow: Desalination
◦ If Hydrogen were the fuel of the future, nuclear power would be there
• Nuclear Medicine
◦ Electric Cars, Civilian Nuclear Ships, Trains and Airplanes
◦ Mobile Power Plants: Nuclear Trains and Floating Nuclear Power Plants
◦ Scanning for and with radioactive materials
• Radiation in agriculture and industry
◦ Mutagenesis: Mutation breeding in agriculture
• The sky is not the limit: Nuclear power in Space
• Radiothermal Isotope Generation Systems (RTG)
• Power to go to the distance: Reactors in Space
• Destination: Space
◦ NERVA, JIMO, Project Prometheus : Canceled Nuclear propulsion Projects
◦ Closer to home: A lunar Base & Nuclear Powered mission to Mars
◦ Freeman Dyson’s Project Orion: to reach Alpha Centauri
◦ Project Daedalus and AIMstar: Journey to Barnard’s Star

Conclusion